Industries

media and publishing

Apprenticeships, Degree Apprenticeships and Work Experience

Media and Publishing


Not everyone can write a best-selling romantic novel or a deep-dive piece in the national broadsheets, but luckily, there are plenty more ways to enjoy success in the media and publishing industry. In a sector that employs more than two million people, there are plenty of ways for you to show your potential.

Industry Summary

With a career in the media and publishing sector, you’ll soon be making the headlines. Unleash your creative, technical or even your administrative talents in this far-reaching industry that recognises hard work. In this digital age, traditional media is rapidly changing to meet new demands, and a whole scope of new roles have been created to meet major technological advancements.

This is a fast-paced and competitive industry, with roles in larger and more prestigious companies being hard to come by. It is an industry with a lot of thriving small organisations. However, out of the roughly 8,000 publishing companies in the UK, most have fewer than 25 employees and freelancers make up about 15% of the workforce – there are options for whatever kind of workplace you desire.

The media and publishing industries encompass all sorts of roles, not just the traditional editors and printers. For instance, graphic designers, photographers, sound engineers, camera technicians and marketing specialists all have a massive involvement in the production of the media that you see every day. In this sector, there is something for everyone.

 

What options can I take for a career in media and publishing?

 

Work Experience

In the media and publishing industry, work experience is crucial. Your work will be in the public-eye from day one and so employers want to know that you have the skills necessary to represent their brand. The best place to find experience is close to home, either in your school, college or university’s newspaper or radio station, or even your local small media and publishing companies; work experience at larger companies may be more difficult to come by do take the initiative and approach companies that interest you.

Unsure about what a work placement could involve? You should’ve asked!

 

Apprenticeships

Apprenticeships are widely available in the media and publishing industry. These are highly useful as they give you the practical experience that employers are looking for. Not only will you get to work hands-on from day one, but you’ll also be paid a salary while you study towards your qualification at the same time, really setting you up for an amazing career. Here are some possible apprenticeships that you can consider.

  • Level 3 – Advertising and Media Executive
  • Level 3 – Junior Content Producer
  • Level 3 – Publishing Assistant
  • Level 4 – Broadcast Production
  • Level 4 – Advertising Marketing Communications

Want to know what apprenticeships are all about? We have you covered!

 

Degree Apprenticeships

Degree apprenticeships are also available in the media and publishing industry. This is an option that combines the best aspects of an apprenticeship and university. Not only will you earn a degree, but your employer will pay for your university fees and your salary as you gain practical experience in the workplace. You’ll be working alongside experienced professionals and gaining a lot of responsibility, especially as you advance in the company.

  • Level 6 – Broadcast Technology Engineer (degree)

Is a degree apprenticeship up your street? We’ll help you know!

 

University

To pursue a career in media and publishing consider going to university. Your course will give you all the up-to-date theoretical knowledge and skills in the industry, which you’ll then be able to apply to your job after graduating. You’ll also have the option to choose modules in which you can specialise – these skills may help you down the career you wish to pursue once you leave university. We’d recommend that you look for degrees that have placement years as this will give you the necessary work experience needed to succeed in the media and publishing industry.

  • Publishing BA (Hons)
  • Design for Publishing BA (Hons)
  • Creative Writing and Publishing BA (Hons)
  • Magazine Journalism and Publishing BA (Hons)
  • Media, Journalism and Publishing BA (Hons)
  • Media Production BA (Hons)
  • Media Studies BA (Hons)
  • Media and Communications BA (Hons)
  • Media Arts BA (Hons)
  • Digital Media BA (Hons)

Want to find out what University could offer you? We have your back!

 

Graduate Jobs

Unlike other sectors, only a small percentage of companies in media and publishing run an annual recruitment drive for graduates or interns, and the few employers that do have a very limited intake. Some businesses offer graduate schemes which deliver structured training to candidates in order to give them a greater understanding of the scope of the business. To take advantage of the elusive opportunities offered by smaller firms, it may be a good idea to speculatively apply to those that take your interest – even if there are no roles available at that time, your motivation may encourage an employer to contact you later down the line.

Want to know what graduate jobs are all about? We can help!

 

Other routes

The content creators involved in this sector tend to be successful for their personal qualities rather than their professional accreditation. The media and publishing industries have many roles taken up by talented apprentices, but there are a few areas in the industry that you can enter either without the relevant qualifications, or very few qualifications at all. If you have evidence that you could potentially go far in media and publishing, this may satisfy employers and see you succeed in your dream career.

Find your perfect media and publishing role!

Career Progression, Discover Your Future

Librarians

Work Description

Librarians appraise, obtain, index, collate and make available library acquisitions and organise and control other library services.

Qualification

Entry will normally require an accredited degree or postgraduate qualification. Most postgraduate courses require applicants to have had prior relevant work experience. Professional qualifications and NVQs/SVQs in Information and Library Service are available at Levels 2, 3 and 4.

Job Tasks

selects and arranges for the acquisition of books, periodicals, audio-visual and other material; collects, classifies and catalogues information, books and other material; prepares and circulates abstracts, bibliographies, book lists, etc.; identifies the information needs of clients, seeks out and evaluates information sources; establishes information storage systems to deal with queries and to maintain up to date records; manages library borrowing and inter-library loan facilities; promotes library services through displays and talks provides learning and cultural experiences through events such as author talks, reading groups, formal and informal teaching.

Related Jobs

Librarian, branch Librarian, chartered Librarian, film Librarian, hospital Librarian, magazine Librarian, media Librarian, newspaper Librarian, picture Librarian, tape, computer Librarian, tape, magnetic Librarian, technical Librarian, university Librarian, visual, audio Librarian Manager, resource, learning Scientist, information Superintendent 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Archivists and curators

Work Description

Archivists and curators collect, appraise and preserve collections of recorded and other material of historical interest.

Qualification

Entrants require a good first degree in order to gain entry to a relevant postgraduate course. Many postgraduate courses also require applicants to have gained relevant practical experience prior to entry. Training is typically received on-the-job. Professional qualifications leading to NVQs/SVQs in relevant areas at Levels 3, 4 and 5 are available.

Job Tasks

examines, appraises and advises on the acquisition of exhibits, historic records, government papers and other material; classifies material and arranges for its safe keeping and preservation; maintains indexes, bibliographies and descriptive details of archive material and arranges for reproductions of items where necessary; examines objects to identify any damage and carries out necessary restoration whilst preserving original characteristics; makes sure that storage and display conditions protect objects from deterioration and damage; allows access to original material or material not on display for researchers; develops and promotes ideas for exhibitions and displays; negotiates loans of material for specialist displays; liaises with school and other groups or individuals, publicises exhibits and arranges special displays for general, specialised or educational interest; answers verbal or written enquiries and gives advice on exhibits or other material.

Related Jobs

Archivist Assistant, curatorial Conservator Curator Inspector of ancient monuments Investigator Keeper, museum Keeper Keeper Keeper Officer, collection Officer, conservation, museum Officer, education, arts Officer, education Officer, education Officer, museum Officer, museums 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Journalists, newspaper and periodical editors

Work Description

Jobholders in this unit group investigate and write up stories and features for broadcasting and for newspapers, magazines and other periodicals, evaluate and manage their style and content and oversee the editorial direction of these types of output and publication.

Qualification

Entrants usually possess a degree or equivalent qualification. A variety of postgraduate diplomas is available. NVQs/SVQs covering various aspects of journalism are available at Levels 3 and 4.

Job Tasks

determines subject matter and undertakes research by interviewing, attending public events, seeking out records, reviewing written work, attending film and stage performances etc.; writes articles and features and submits draft manuscripts to newspaper, magazine, periodical or programme editor; selects material for broadcast or publication, checks style, grammar, accuracy and legality of content and arranges for any necessary revisions; liaises with production staff in checking final proof copies immediately prior to printing.

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Columnist Commentator Compiler, crossword Correspondent, foreign Correspondent, newspaper Correspondent, political Correspondent, technical Correspondent, turf Correspondent Critic Diarist Director, editorial Editor, art Editor, content Editor, copy Editor, desk, multimedia Editor, digital Editor, listings Editor, managing Editor, news Editor, newspaper Editor, online Editor, on-line Editor, picture Editor, production Editor, publishing Editor, sub Editor Editor Executive, editorial Journalist, broadcast Journalist, data Journalist, digital Journalist, multimedia Journalist, online Journalist, on-line Journalist, radio Journalist Journalist Manager, editorial Officer, publications Reporter, court Reporter Representative, press Sub-editor Writer, feature Writer, features Writer, freelance Writer, leader Writer, news Writer, sports Writer, travel Writer Writer Writer and editor 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Public relations professionals

Work Description

Public relations professionals plan, organise and co-ordinate the activities that promote the image and understanding of an organisation and its products or services to consumers, businesses, members of the public and other specified audiences.

Qualification

Most entrants possess A levels/H grades and a degree or equivalent qualification. Further professional qualifications are available.

Job Tasks

discusses issues of business strategy, products, services and target client base with senior colleagues to identify public relations requirements; writes, edits and arranges for the effective distribution of press releases, newsletters and other public relations material; addresses individuals, clients and other target groups through meetings, presentations, the media and other events to enhance the public image of an organisation; develops and implements tools to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of public relations exercises.

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Adviser, PR Adviser, relations, public Agent, press Agent, publicity Aide, communications Assistant, communications, digital Assistant, communications Assistant, PR Assistant, publications Assistant, publicity Assistant, publishing Assistant, relations, public Consultant, affairs, public Consultant, communications Consultant, media, social Consultant, media Consultant, PR Consultant, publicity Consultant, relations, public Coordinator, media Executive, account Executive, liaison, media Executive, media, social Executive, relations, public Interviewer, press Lobbyist Manager, account Manager, affairs, corporate Manager, affairs, public Manager, communications Manager, media, social Manager, media Manager, publicity Manager, relations, alumni Manager, relations, public Manager Officer, communications Officer, information, research Officer, information Officer, liaison, press Officer, liaison Officer, media Officer, press Officer, press and information Officer, publicity Officer, relations, alumni Officer, relations, media Officer, relations, public Organiser, publicity Publicist Secretary, press 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Advertising accounts managers and creative directors

Work Description

Advertising accounts managers and creative directors plan, design, organise and direct the advertising activities of an organisation.

Qualification

Entry is generally via career progression from related occupations. There are no pre-set entry standards, but in practice most directors hold a degree. Off- and on-the-job training is provided.

Job Tasks

liaises with client to discuss product/service to be marketed, defines target group and assesses the suitability of various media; conceives advertising campaign to impart the desired product image in an effective and economical way; reviews and revises campaign in light of sales figures, surveys, etc.; stays abreast of changes in media, readership or viewing figures and advertising rates; arranges conferences, exhibitions, seminars, etc. to promote the image of a product, service or organisation.

Related Jobs

Consultant, creative Director, art, digital Director, art Director, creative, digital Director, creative Director, design Manager, account, advertising Manager, account Manager, advertisement Manager, advertising, online Manager, advertising, sales Manager, advertising Manager, appeal Manager, appeals Manager, campaign, marketing Manager, campaign Manager, fundraising Manager, lottery Manager, portfolio Manager, press Manager, production Manager, projects Manager, raising, fund Manager, traffic Manager 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Artists

Work Description

Artists create artistic works using appropriate techniques, materials and media; design artwork and illustrations; and restore damaged pieces of art.

Qualification

No specific academic qualifications are required although a variety of vocational qualifications, degrees and postgraduate courses are available. Entry can be based upon portfolio work.

Job Tasks

conceives and develops ideas and ways of working for artistic composition; selects appropriate materials, medium and method; prepares sketches, scale drawings or colour schemes; builds up composition into finished work by carving, sculpting, etching, painting, engraving, drawing, etc.; approaches managers of galleries and exhibitions in order to get finished work displayed; uses artistic skills to restore damaged artworks; liaises with writers and publishers to produce book illustrations; markets and sells finished work directly to customers; produces works on commission basis for clients.

Related Jobs

Animator Artist, fashion Artist, medical Artist, press Artist, scenic Artist, visual Artist Artist and designer, fashion Artist-designer Assistant, sculptor's Calligrapher Cartoonist Cleaner, picture Engraver, portrait Etcher, black and white Illustrator, book Illustrator, chief Illustrator, fashion Illustrator, leading Illustrator, medical Illustrator, senior Illustrator Modeller, artistic Painter, artistic Painter, colour, water Painter, landscape Painter, marine Painter, miniature Painter, portrait Restorer, art Restorer, picture Sculptor Technician, art 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Authors, writers and translators

Work Description

Job holders in this unit group write, edit and evaluate literary material for publication excluding material for newspapers, magazines and other periodicals but including scripts and narrative for film, TV, radio and computer games and animations; and translate spoken and written statements into different languages.

Qualification

Entry is possible with a variety of academic qualifications and/or relevant experience. Postgraduate and professional qualifications are available and are required for some occupations.

Job Tasks

determines subject matter and researches as necessary by interviewing, attending public events, seeking out records, observing etc.; generates and develops creative ideas for literary material; selects material for publication, checks style, grammar and accuracy of content, arranges for any necessary revisions and checks proof copies before printing; negotiates contracts with freelance agents and with buyer on behalf of writer; writes instruction manuals and user guides, technical reports, catalogues and indexes, prepares sales literature and writes technical articles for trade journals; converts documents or spoken statements from original or source language into another language; provides communication support for the hard of hearing or the visually impaired.

Related Jobs

Adviser, literary Agent, literary Assistant, editorial Author, technical Author Bibliographer Biographer Blogger Communicator for the deaf Compiler, technical Consultant, editorial Consultant, language Consultant, publishing Copywriter Describer, audio Dramatist Editor, cartographic Editor, managing Editor, sales Editor, technical Editor Editor-in-chief Interpreter Interpreter and translator Lexicographer Linguist Manager, publications, technical Manager, publications Novelist Playwright Poet Reader, lip Reader, literary Reader, publisher's Screenwriter Speechwriter Translator Translator and interpreter Writer, communications, corporate Writer, copy Writer, creative Writer, freelance Writer, lyric Writer, medical Writer, report Writer, reports, senior Writer, screen Writer, script Writer, specialist Writer, specifications Writer, technical, senior Writer, technical Writer, technical Writer, travel Writer Writer and creator 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Actors, entertainers and presenters

Work Description

Actors, entertainers and presenters sing, portray roles in dramatic productions, perform comedy routines, gymnastic feats and tricks of illusion, train animals to perform and perform with them, and introduce and present radio and television programmes.

Qualification

Entry does not depend on academic qualifications although some drama schools require candidates to have GCSEs/S grades or A levels/H grades or a degree. Entry can be based upon an audition. Membership of the appropriate trade union is usually required. NVQs/SVQs in performing arts are available.

Job Tasks

studies script, play or book and prepares and rehearses interpretation; assumes character created by a playwright or author and communicates this to an audience; performs singing, comedy, acrobatic, illusion and conjuring routines; trains animals to perform entertaining routines and may perform with them; introduces and presents radio and television programmes, reads news bulletins and makes announcements; conducts interviews and prepares reports for news broadcasts, current affairs programmes and documentaries; plays pre-recorded music at nightclubs, discotheques, and private functions.

Related Jobs

Acrobat Actor Actor-manager Aerialist Announcer Announcer Artist, film Artist, over, voice Artist, recording Artist Artiste Assistant, showman's Choirboy Chorister Clerk, lay Clown Coach, singing Comedian Commentator Compere Conjurer Correspondent DJ Entertainer Extra Girl, chorus Girl, show Hypnotist Illusionist Impresario Impressionist Interpreter, costumed Interviewer, television Jockey, disc Jockey, disc Judge Juggler Livestreamer Magician Man, stunt Mannequin Model Newscaster Newsreader Officer, entertainments Performer, circus Presenter, radio Presenter, television Presenter Puppeteer Reader, news Reporter Rider Showman Singer Skater, ice Tamer Trainer, animal, circus Trainer, animal Understudy Ventriloquist Vlogger Vocalist YouTuber 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Arts officers, producers and directors

Work Description

Arts officers, producers and directors assume creative, financial and organisational responsibilities in the production and direction of television and radio programmes, films, stage presentations, content for other media, and the promotion and exhibition of other creative activities.

Qualification

Entry can be via academic qualifications, BTEC/SQA awards, diplomas or degrees in sector-relevant subjects. Apprenticeships are available at NVQ Levels 2 and 3 in some areas.

Job Tasks

chooses writers, scripts, technical staff and performers, and assumes overall responsibility for completion of project on time and within budget; directs actors, designers, camera team, sound crew and other production and technical staff to achieve desired effects; breaks script into scenes and formulates a shooting schedule that will be most economical in terms of time, location and sets; prepares rehearsal and production schedule for main events, design of sets and costumes, technical rehearsals and dress rehearsals; ensures necessary equipment, props, performers and technical staff are on set when required; manages health and safety issues; selects, contracts, markets and arranges for the presentation and/or distribution of performance, visual and heritage arts.

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Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Photographers, audio-visual and broadcasting equipment operators

Work Description

Workers in this unit group operate and assist with still, cine and television cameras and operate other equipment to record, manipulate and project sound and vision for entertainment, cultural, commercial and industrial purposes.

Qualification

There are no set academic requirements although entrants usually possess GCSEs/S grades, A levels/H grades and are able to demonstrate proof of pre- entry work experience. A variety of diplomas, degrees and postgraduate qualifications are available. NVQs/SVQs in Photography are available at Levels 2, 3 and 4.

Job Tasks

selects subject and conceives composition of picture or discusses composition with colleagues; arranges subject, lighting, camera equipment and any microphones; inserts lenses and adjusts aperture and speed settings as necessary; operates scanning equipment to transfer image to computer and manipulates image to achieve the desired effect; photographs subject or follows action by moving camera; takes, records and manipulates digital images and digital video footage; controls transmission, broadcasting and satellite systems for television and radio programmes, identifies and solves related technical problems; checks operation and positioning of projectors, vision and sound recording equipment, and mixing and dubbing equipment; operates equipment to record, edit and play back films and television programmes; manages health and safety issues; operates sound mixing and dubbing equipment to obtain desired mix, level and balance of sound.

Related Jobs

Artist, photographic Assistant, camera, first Assistant, camera, second Assistant, cameraman's Assistant, film Assistant, photographer's Assistant, photographic Assistant, sound Assistant, studio Balancer, sound Cameraman, chief Cameraman Cinematographer Controller, sound Designer, lighting Designer, sound Director, lighting, technical Director, lighting, theatre Director of photography Editor, camera, video Editor, dubbing Editor, sound Engineer, audio Engineer, camera, video Engineer, control, vision Engineer, recording Engineer, sound Engineer, studio Engineer, vision Manager, audio-visual Manager, lighting Manager, lighting Manager, sound, theatre Manager, technical Manager, visual, audio Mixer, dubbing Mixer, sound Mixer, vision Mixer Officer, aids, visual Officer, resources, media Operator, aids, audio-visual Operator, boom Operator, camera, video Operator, camera Operator, camera Operator, camera Operator, camera Operator, cinema Operator, cinematograph Operator, control, sound Operator, equipment, video Operator, limelight Operator, photo Operator, photo-litho Operator, photographic Operator, recorder, film Operator, recorder, videotape Operator, studio, photogravure Operator, tape Operator, technical Operator, telecine Operator, video Operator, VT Photographer Pilot, drone, commercial Projectionist Puller, focus Recorder Recordist, sound Rigger Soundman Supervisor, vision Technician, aids, visual Technician, backline Technician, camera, video Technician, cine Technician, film Technician, imaging, digital Technician, media Technician, photographic Technician, sound Technician, stage, theatre Technician, theatre Technician, visual, audio Technician Videographer Writer, subtitle 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Graphic designers

Work Description

Graphic designers use illustrative, sound, visual and multimedia techniques to convey a message for information, entertainment, advertising, promotion or publicity purposes, and create special visual effects and animations for computer games, film, interactive and other media.

Qualification

Entrants have usually completed a foundation course, a BTEC/SQA award, a degree and/or postgraduate qualification. NVQs/SVQs in Design (in various disciplines) are available at Levels 2 and 3. Portfolio work is also important for entry.

Job Tasks

liaises with client to clarify aims of project brief, discusses media, software and technology to be used, establishes timetable for project and defines budgetary constraints; undertakes research into project, considers previous related projects and compares costs of using different processes; prepares sketches, scale drawings, models, colour schemes and other mock-ups to show clients and discusses any required alterations; prepares specification and instructions for realisation of the project; liaises with other parts of the production team to ensure graphic design fits with other elements, processes and timescales; produces or oversees creation of the final product.

Related Jobs

Animator, 2D, computer Animator, 2D Animator, 3D, computer Animator, 3D Animator, computer Animator, effects, visual Animator, motion, stop Animator, VFX Artist, 3D Artist, commercial Artist, computer Artist, digital Artist, effects, digital Artist, effects, visual Artist, environment Artist, games, computer Artist, graphic Artist, layout Artist, lettering Artist, litho Artist, lithographic Artist, Mac Artist, stereo Artist, technical Artist, texture Artist, VFX Artworker, digital Artworker, senior Artworker Assistant, graphics Assistant, publications Assistant, publishing Consultant, design, graphic Controller, display Coordinator, design, graphic Copier, design Copyist, design Copyist, designer's Copyist Decorator, display Designer, 3D Designer, advert Designer, art Designer, digital Designer, display Designer, exhibition Designer, graphic Designer, graphic and web Designer, graphics, motion Designer, infographic Designer, multi-media Designer, visualisation, data Designer Illuminator Illustrator, technical Modeller, environment Officer, graphics Officer, services, creative Operator, DTP Operator, Mac, Apple Operator, Mac Operator, publishing, top, desk Setter-out Supervisor, effects, visual Supervisor, VFX Technician, graphics Visualiser, 3D Visualiser 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Library clerks and assistants

Work Description

Library clerks and assistants classify, sort and file publications, documents, audio-visual and computerised material in libraries and offices.

Qualification

There are no minimum academic requirements, although entrants usually possess GCSEs/S grades or A-Levels/H grades. Training is usually provided on-the-job. NVQs/ SVQs in Information and Library Services are available at Levels 2 and 3.

Job Tasks

sorts, catalogues and maintains library records; locates and retrieves material on request for borrowers; issues library material and records date of issue/ due date for return; classifies, labels and indexes new books; performs simple repairs on old books.

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Abstractor Agent, cutting, press Assistant, archives Assistant, bibliographic Assistant, chief Assistant, clerical Assistant, counter Assistant, information Assistant, information Assistant, library Assistant, resource, learning Assistant, services, bibliographic Assistant Attendant, library Clerk, cuttings, press Clerk, library Clerk Clipper, press Looker-out, book Reader Supervisor, library 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Pre-press technicians

Work Description

Pre-press technicians prepare, format and compose text and graphics in a form suitable for use in a variety of print processes.

Qualification

There are no formal academic requirements although some employers may require GCSEs/S grades. Training is typically received on-the-job. Apprenticeships are available as well as BTEC certificates and diplomas and other vocational courses at NVQ/SVQ Levels 2 and 3.

Job Tasks

determines from specification the kind and size of type to be used; uses computer applications to generate images and text; scans and retouches digital images to create sample proofs, plans and lays out artwork to match planned design; examines proof copies, checks for quality and accuracy and makes any necessary alterations; processes filmsetting or desktop publishing output to produce image on film and transfers to printing plates and digital output; arranges and pastes printing material onto paper ready for photographing.

Related Jobs

Artist, paste-up Assembler, mould Assembler Assistant, lithographic Assistant, stereotyper's Attendant, caster, monotype Caster, monotype Caster Clicker Compositor Designer, typographical Displayman Draughtsman, lithographic Draughtsman, printer's Electrotyper Engraver, bank-note Engraver, block, process Engraver, chemical Engraver, copper Engraver, die Engraver, hand Engraver, heraldic Engraver, line Engraver, machine Engraver, map Engraver, mark, stamp Engraver, music Engraver, pantograph Engraver, photo Engraver, photographic Engraver, photogravure Engraver, plate, copper Engraver, potter's Engraver, process Engraver, punch Engraver, relief Engraver, roller Engraver, seal Engraver, transfer Engraver Engraver Engraver Etcher, block, process Etcher, colour Etcher, copper Etcher, deep Etcher, fine Etcher, line Etcher, photogravure Etcher, roller Etcher, rough Etcher, tone, half Etcher Hand, box Hand, imposition Hand, make-up Hand, plate Hand, poster Hand, stone Hand, yardage Impressioner Layer, plate Layer, printer's Lithographer, photo Machinist, casting, monotype Machinist, linotype Machinist, plate-backing Maker, block Maker, plate, lithographic Maker, plate Maker, print Maker-up Man, lay-out Manager, pre-press Measurer Metaller, bronzing Moulder, wax Moulder Operator, caster, monotype Operator, composer, IBM Operator, intertype Operator, keyboard Operator, linotype Operator, ludlow Operator, make-up, display Operator, monotype Operator, pre-press Operator, typographical Originator, print Originator Planer Planner, gravure Planner, litho Planner, lithographic Planner, page Planner Preparer, lithographic Preparer, paper Preparer Printer, carbon Printer, metal Printer, originator Printer-compositor Printer-down Printer-to-metal Puller, proof Raiser Reader-compositor Repairer, plate Reproducer, plan Setter, type Stereographer Stereotyper Stripper Supervisor, typesetting Technician, pre-press Transferer, lithograph Turner Typist, vari Typographer Worker, photogravure 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Printers

Work Description

Printers set up and operate various small offset printing presses and digital printing processes.

Qualification

There are no formal academic requirements although some employers may require GCSEs/S grades. Training is typically received on-the-job. National Traineeships and apprenticeships in Machine Printing are available at NVQ/SVQ Levels 2 and 3.

Job Tasks

positions form or plate on machine, checks alignments and sets press; mixes and loads inks and solvents, loads paper and regulates during print run; prints and examines proof copies and adjusts press as necessary; starts or directs start of printing run and monitors machine to ensure that printing proceeds smoothly; pours colour into machine or directly on to screen and positions screen over item; operates squeegee by hand or machine to press colour through screen; dips wooden pattern block into colour tray and lays different colours on top of, and adjacent to, others to form the required pattern; produces, transfers and outputs digital print images; maintains, adjusts, repairs and cleans machine; keeps production records.

Related Jobs

Blocker, foil Blocker, gold Bronzer, printer's Bronzer Coordinator, print Decorator Foreman, printing Foreman, room, machine Foreman, shop, print Foreman Foreman Guider Machinist, bronzing Machinist, screen, silk Maker, mark Maker, screen, silk Maker, screen Maker, stamp Maker, ticket Manager, machine, printing Manager, print, screen Manager, print Manager, printing Manager, room, print Minder, machine, litho Minder, machine, printing Minder, machine Minder, platen Operator, litho, offset Operator, lithographic Operator, Multilith Operator, offset Operator, process Operator, screen, silk Pantographer Printer, block Printer, bromide Printer, calico Printer, cloth Printer, colour Printer, contact Printer, dial Printer, digital Printer, embroidery Printer, fabric Printer, film Printer, flexographic Printer, general Printer, glass Printer, gold Printer, gravure Printer, hand Printer, hat Printer, label Printer, letter, bronze Printer, letterpress Printer, litho, offset Printer, litho Printer, lithographic, offset Printer, lithographic Printer, map Printer, master Printer, mat Printer, Multilith Printer, nos Printer, nos Printer, offset Printer, photographic Printer, plate Printer, press Printer, process Printer, sack Printer, screen, silk Printer, screen Printer, silver Printer, textile Printer, ticket, leaf, metal Printer, ticket Printer, title Printer, transfer Printer, wallpaper Printer and stationer Screener, silk Specialist, document, digital Stationer Stationer and printer Supervisor, print Technician, print Worker, colour 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Print finishing and binding workers

Work Description

Print finishing and binding workers bind books and other publications and finish printed items by hand or machine.

Qualification

There are no formal academic requirements although some employers may require GCSEs/S grades. Training is typically received on-the-job. National Traineeships and apprenticeships in Machine Printing are available at NVQ/SVQ Levels 2 and 3.

Job Tasks

folds, collates and sews printed sheets by hand or machine; compresses sewn book in nipping machine to expel air and reduce swelling caused by sewing; trims head, tail and fore-edge of book and gilds and marbles page edges as necessary; cuts board and cloth for book cover and spine; embosses lettering or decoration on cover by hand or machine; repairs worn book bindings; sets up and supervises automatic binding and finishing machine.

Related Jobs

Assembler, film Assembler, negative Assistant, binder's Assistant, bindery Assistant, bookbinder's Assistant, control, sensitometric Assistant, presentation Assistant, process Assistant, room, dark Assistant, warehouse, printing Binder, book Binder, leather Binder, printer's Binder, publisher's Binder, stationer's Binder, vellum Binder Binder Blocker Bookbinder Calculator, sensitometric Collator Colourer, hand Colourer, print Colourer Colourist, photographic Colourist, postcard Copyist, braille Coverer Cutter, cloth Cutter, leather Cutter Developer, film Developer Dryer Dryer Duster Edger, gilt Embosser, leather Embosser Enlarger Finisher, book Finisher, gold Finisher, photo Finisher, photographic Finisher, print Finisher, printer's Finisher Finisher Finisher Folder, book Folder Folder Folder Foreman Foreman Forwarder Gatherer Gilder Gilder Gilder Grader Grinder Hand, dis Hand, general Handler Indexer Joiner, film Loader, cassette, cartridge Loader, film Machinist, binding, perfect Machinist, collotype Machinist, combining Machinist, developing, film Machinist, duplicating, offset Machinist, embossing Machinist, printing, film Machinist, sewing Machinist Machinist Maker, book, pattern Maker, book, pocket Maker, case, leather Man, table Manager, finishing Marbler, paper Marbler Mounter, photographer's Mounter, process Mounter Numberer Pager Passer, proof Patcher Perforator, card Perforator, pattern Perforator, stamp Perforator Plater Polisher, spray Presser Processor, film Processor, photographic Prover, colour Prover, process Prover Prover Reeler Repairer, book Restorer, book Retoucher, colour Retoucher, photographic Retoucher, photolitho Retoucher Retoucher Roller Sewer, vellum Sewer Splicer, film Spooler Spotter Spotter Stitcher Stitcher Supervisor, finishing Synchroniser Technician, darkroom Tinter Trimmer Washer Worker, bindery Worker, copper, electro Worker, film, colour Worker, process 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

Printing machine assistants

Work Description

Printing machine assistants set and operate letterpress, platen or cylinder, lithographic and photogravure printing machines, photocopiers, office printers, duplication machines and other reprographic equipment.

Qualification

No academic qualifications are required. Off- and on-the-job training is provided. NVQs/SVQs in Screen Printing are available at Levels 1 and 2, and in Machine Printing at Levels 2 and 3.

Job Tasks

positions printing plates, loads inks into reservoirs and loads paper rolls or sheets into printing press; sets controls to control the speed, pressure and ink flow of printing machine; loads photocopiers, office printers, duplication machines and other reprographic equipment with stationery; starts reprographic or printing machine and monitors operation for paper misfeeds and error messages, removes blockages and replaces damaged paper, and monitors quality of output; carries out routine maintenance and cleaning of printing machine; sets and operates machines for cutting paper to specified dimensions or for folding or binding to produce finished paper items; sets and operates presses for stamping patterns and labels on textiles, clothing, pottery, footwear and other leather goods.

Related Jobs

Assistant, general Assistant, lab, photo Assistant, letterpress Assistant, minder's, machine Assistant, press Assistant, print Assistant, printer's Assistant, printing Assistant, room, machine Assistant, room, print Assistant, rotary Attendant, room, print Beveller Boy, machine Brakesman Clammer Clamper Cleaner, glass Cleaner, plate Crater Cutter, die Cutter, letter Cutter, punch Cutter, roller Cutter, seal Decorator, plate, tin Driver, printer's Embosser Embosser Feeder, letterpress Feeder, platen Feeder, printer's Feeder Hand, brake Hand, controller Hand, floor Hand, fly Hand, news Hand, reel Hand, tension Help, printer's Helper, printer's Jobber, printer's Layer-on, machine Leveller Lithographer Loader Machinist, collating Machinist, cylinder Machinist, decollating Machinist, duplicating Machinist, dyeline Machinist, folding Machinist, gravure Machinist, lithographic Machinist, photogravure Machinist, platen Machinist, press, letter Machinist, press Machinist, printer's Machinist, printing Machinist, rotary Machinist, tinplate Machinist Machinist Maker, map Maker, ticket, reel Man, table Manager, machine, collotype Manager, machine, letterpress Manager, machine, lithographic Manager, machine, photogravure Manager, machine Mate, printer's Numberer, parts Numberer Operative, finishing Operative, printer's Operator, dyeline Operator, folding Operator, gravure Operator, lab, photo Operator, line, dye Operator, print, photo Operator, print Operator, printer's Operator, rotary Plater, tin Presser, rotary Presser Printer, blue Printer, dyeline Printer, light, arc Printer, office, drawing Printer, photostat Printer, phototype Printer, plan Printer, rota Proofer Puncher, card Puncher, label Puncher, paper Puncher, pattern Puncher Racker Reeler Ruler, printer's Ruler Ruler Setter, machine Sinker, die Stamper, box Stamper, brush Stamper, bulb, electric Stamper, cloth Stamper, collar Stamper, die Stamper, gold Stamper, gold Stamper, gold Stamper, pattern Stamper, pattern Stamper, printer's Stamper, relief Stamper, size Stamper, soap Stamper, sock Stamper Stamper Stamper Stamper Stamper Supervisor, room, print Taker, impression Taker-off, machine Taker-off Technician, bindery Technician, laboratory, photo Teerer Tenter, back Tenter, back Tierer Transferer Valver Worker, print Worker, process Worker, process Worker, table 

Estimated Pay

Information on weekly pay (average, median and decile) is taken from a combination of two sources: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE); and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) (both conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS)). ASHE is widely regarded as the most reliable source of information on Pay and Hours, however it does not include information on pay by qualification as well as some other characteristics (such as self-employment).

Unemployment Data

The level and rate of UK unemployment for this career path measured by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) as a percentage, using the International Labour Organisation's definition of unemployment.

Projected Employment Levels

Estimated Hours

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